The Intregration Profile (TIP) - Publications and Conference Papers

Faith at Work (Religious Perspectives): Protestant Accents in Faith and Work," with Timothy Ewest. in Handbook of Faith and Spirituality in the Workplace: Emerging Research and Practice, Ed. Judi Neal

David Miller & Tim Ewest - 2013

All roads do not lead to Rome, and despite the wishful thinking of many, all religions do not believe the same thing. To be sure, there is a lot of shared belief among the world's religions (Kung & Kuschel, 1993), particularly in prescriptions for how we ought to live our lives, and what constitutes a good life (Stackhouse, 1995). Differences between religions begin to emerge when discussing questions of the culmination of history or end times (eschatology ), the aim (or telos) of life, and the cultural manifestations (orthopraxy) of religious beliefs (orthodoxy). This is particularly relevant when considering how religious beliefs, customs, and traditions shape and inform workplace behaviors.

Historic and contemporary Protestantism is not monolithic; it has many faces today, shaped in large part by its dialectical development over the centuries between itself and culture (Niebuhr, 1951/2001). We explore the role of Protestant thought on the faith at work movement (Miller, 2007) by beginning with a brief history of Protestantism, the emergence in North America of Protestant accents concerning a theology of work, followed by a consideration of the limitations and revisions of corresponding contemporary contextual definitions. With this foundation, we denote five primary Protestant theological accents seen today that shape and influence faith at work in the modern workforce.


The Integration Box (TIB): An Individual and Institutional Faith, Religion, and Spirituality at Work Assessment Tool" with Timothy Ewest in Handbook of Faith and Spirituality in the Workplace: Emerging Research and Practice, Ed. Judi Neal

David Miller & Tim Ewest - 2013

If you listen, you can hear the voices of employees at all levels and employers of all kinds, in all industries, and in all parts of the country (and increasingly, the world) expressing a desire to live a holistic life. They want to bring their whole self to work, not just their race, ethnicity, gender or gender orientation, but also their faith. Voices echoing and confirming this phenomena can also be heard from scholarly research (Fogel, 2000; Nash & McLennan, 2001; Williams, 2003; Giacalone, Jurkiewicz & Fry, 2005; Hicks, 2003; Miller, 2007; Lambert, 2009; Miller & Ewest, 2010), anecdotal media stories (Conlin, 1999; Gunther, 2001; Grossman, 2008; Warner, 2011; Dobnik, 2012), industry journals (Rosenberg, 2008; Walsh, 2010; Glancey, 2010), as well as from the marketplace itself (Julian, 2002; Maxwell, Graves & Addington, 2005; Beckett, 2006; Campbell, 2009; Pollard, 2010). And yet, despite this cacophony of voices and clear demand, there is not a satisfying response to how companies can assist their employees in their pursuit of a holistic life...


The Present State of Workplace Spirituality: A literature review considering context, theory and measurement/assessment

David Miller & Tim Ewest - January 2011

This paper seeks to review the growing body of qualitative and theoretical research on the field of workplace spirituality, with particular attention to determining the nature, aims, and unmet needs specific to scale development for spirituality in the workplace and faith at work. Extending the earlier and broader literature review work of Gorsuch and Miller (1999), Hill and Hood (1999), the Fetzer Group (1999), Moberg (2002), Mohamed, et al (2004), Day (2004), and Lund Dean and Fornaciari (2007), this paper also seeks to advance the direction of future psychometric scale development in the burgeoning and interdisciplinary academic field of workplace spirituality and faith at work. By suggesting a new rubric for understanding the literature (manifestation, development, and adherence), and analyzing the scale validity and reliability the authors hope to expand the conceptual imagination for new scale research.

Specifically, this paper argues that the previous research has begun to address important aspects of research scale development, although it has been limited in its applicability to workplace contexts, does not address diverse religious traditions, and falls short of understanding how and the degree to which individual or collective spirituality integrates and manifests itself in the workplace. Moreover, while much scale research has been directed towards personal fulfillment, faith maturity and wellness (Hill and Hood, 1999; Moberg, 2002), only recently have scales been developed with an eye towards workplace spirituality and faith at work.


"Rethinking the Impact of Religion on Business Values: Understanding its Reemergence and Measuring its Manifestations" 

David Miller & Timothy Ewest - January 2011

Caux International and CIBE 25th Global Dialogue and Conference, "A Values Based Economy for China and the World - Caux Rountable - Beijing, China

This paper argues that religious values have impacts on and in the workplace, as was suggested as early as Weber (1905), and that these impacts are still extant, worthy of continued research, and are possible to measure. Moreover, the recent emergence of intense scholarly interest in the study of the connections between religion/spirituality and the workplace is driven not only by a desire to understand the variables and interrelationships of the phenomenon, but increasingly also by other interdisciplinary questions of interest to scholars and practitioners alike, such as leadership studies, ethics, diversity and inclusion, cultural competence, human rights, globalism, and changes in immigration patterns, organizational and economic structures, and geo-politics. Finally, if religion/spirituality should be a going concern for business professionals, the paper suggests a comprehensive pattern of how religious/spiritual identity manifests itself at work, and understanding this would allow business professionals and management to potentially measure and adjust for the spiritual climate of their organization. The paper concludes by offering The Integration Box (TIB) theory as a means to understand and potentially evaluate how individuals integrate faith and work, as well as a means for organizations to understand, and respond constructively to the phenomena of religious values in the workplace.


"The Integration Box (TIB): An Individual and Institutional Faith, Religion, and Spirituality at Work Assessment Tool"

David Miller & Tim Ewest - December 2010

Spirituality & Religion Inaugural Conference: Spirituality & Management: Strangers no more - International Association of Management - Vienna, Austria

This paper considers the evolution of leadership theory from an outward focus oriented on behavior to an inward focus oriented on the interpersonal and spiritual dimensions of leaders. While the empirical existence and personal importance of faith, spirituality, and religious identity in the life of leaders and employees is becoming more widely accepted, there are still several outstanding descriptive and prescriptive questions pertaining to the level and kinds of integration of spirituality in the workplace. To address some of these concerns we propose Miller’s (2007) theory, The Integration Box (TIB) theory, as a means to understand and measure the primary manifestations and levels of how individuals of multiple faith traditions integrate their religion/spirituality and work, as well as a means for organizations to understand, and respond constructively to the phenomena of these metaphysically inspired workplace spirituality manifestations and values.


"The Integration Box (TIB): Toward an Individual and Institutional Faith, Religion, and Spirituality at Work Assessment Tool"

David Miller - June 2010

Christian Scholars' Conference 2010 - Lipscomb University - Nashville, TN

Once taboo, employees are increasingly bringing their faith, religious, or spiritual identity to work. But what does this mean and how does it manifest itself? How do you measure or understand it? What are the policy ramifications? How will it impact corporate commitments to ethics, attracting and retaining top talent, and diversity and inclusion? This paper explores these and related questions, with particular attention to the development of a validated instrument to measure the individual and institutional manifestations of faith, religion, and spirituality at work. Dr. Miller will present his assessment tool, The Integration Box, as a work in process.

"Work Matters: Toward a Model of Congregational Public Theologizing about Faith and Work"

Thomas Fitzsimmons Neal - 2010

Western Theological Seminary Doctor of Ministry disseration

There are over 1,300 parachurch organizations in North America alone, dedicated to the interface between faith and workplace issues. This project examines the rationale, promise and hope for a congregational approach to the integration of faith and work. Action research was done with a study group of church participants over a one-year period to see what might work for this kind of public theologizing in a congregational setting. The research shows that a small group format that includes an introduction to theology, an introduction to a theology of economics, an introduction to cultural interpretation and leadership, together with an immediate application of these to workplace issues does enable participants to engage in public theologizing about workplace issues. The research also shows that an emphasis on personal development that includes Christian spiritual components is highly motivating to those who wish to engage in this area of public theology. A model for congregational ministries of work and workplace integration ministries is developed based on the research.

The Integration of Faith at Work: A Contextualized Bible Study with "Christians at Telekom" 

Andra Baare - May 2009 

Asbury Theological Seminary Doctor of Ministry Dissertation

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a contextualized Bible study series with the group “Christians at Telekom” (CT) on the participants’ integration of ethics, evangelism (or expression), experience, and enrichment in the workplace.

Building on David Miller’s research of the Faith at Work Movement in the United States, I experimented with Miller’s concept of the Integration Box with Christians in the German workplace context. The Four Es, ethics, evangelism (or expression), experience, and enrichment effectively define not only my own conclusions drawn from fourteen years in the corporate world. The Four Es mirror CT’s primary concerns, observations, theological challenges, and spiritual needs that affect the integration of faith at work. These four faith issues are the unifying principles that move spiritual leaders in the marketplace.

I conducted the study over a period of six months with a focus group of regular CT participants. The participants’ interaction with the Bible study series served as a means to assess the level of integration of ethics, evangelism (or expression), experience, and enrichment prior to and after the Bible study, and led to the identification of reoccurring themes that positively or negatively affected a successful integration of the group member’s faith at work.

Participant group members were close to recognizing the goal of this research project embracing the workplace as God’s call to vocation, but research results reflected consistently that occupation as a vocation was CT’s greatest inner conflict. Every time CT members were close to embracing their occupation as God’s call to vocation, group participants pulled away because of their sociocultural, historical, and theological stamping. They concluded that being priesthood in the workplace as a fulfillment of the Missio Dei and Christ’s Great Commission and serving based on their giftedness and calling was presumptuous. In addition personal ethical and corporate dilemmas existed that ran diametrically to Christian values and principles. The separation of faith from work, the churches’ lack of acknowledgement of intrinsic and extrinsic meaning of work, and DTAG’s development in recent years created difficulties for individual participants to experience intrinsic meaning and teleological purpose.

Group participants were not far from a full integration of all Four Es, even if the connection between all four faith issues ethics, evangelism (or expression), experience, and enrichment were not completely integrated at the conclusion of the research. As part of the priesthood of all believers, CT group participants fulfilled the Missio Dei and Christ’s commission by being active in the world as their parish. They also pursued the fulfilment of the cultural mandate and the Great Commission on the micro (immediate work and job description), mezzo (organization), and macro (society at large) level. Through CT’s centeredness in triune, Cocreative relationality with God the Four Es were almost integrated and in balance.

"A Comparison Study of Protestants in the Workplace; What Effect does a Church Workplace Ministry have on Protestant Workers’ Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Organizational Commitment within Certain Faith Integration Types?"

Mark Walker - February 2005

Regent University Doctor of Philosophy dissertation

Organizational literature claims that allowing workers to express and explore their spirituality or faith in the workplace will enhance worker job outcomes like job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and organizational commitment (OC). Church workplace ministry proponents contend that churches need to develop intentional and strategic workplace ministries to better equip their members in the integration of their Christian faith in the workplace, and in so doing, develop Christians that are more satisfied in their work (job satisfaction), more servant oriented in their workplace (OCB), and more committed to their jobs (OC). Literature further argues that people express and integrate their faith differently, meaning that individuals have a primary faith integration type by which they manifest their faith at work. Miller (2003b) devised a faith integration typology comprised of four faith types called the Four Es: (a) Experiential, (b) Evangelization, (c) Ethics, and (d) Enrichment. This study conducted a comparison test to examine within the context of the Four Es if there was a difference in job satisfaction, OCB, and OC between Christians in the workplace that were involved in a church workplace ministry and Christians that were not involved. Four churches participated in the study and a series of 2 x 5 factorial ANOVAs were performed on the data gathered from 550 respondents to an online self-reporting survey. The ANOVA results indicated that there was a difference in job satisfaction and OC between Christians in the workplace based on their church workplace ministry involvement and faith integration types, but no difference existed in OCB between the two groups. In addition, the potential confounding effects of the demographic variables age, gender, tenure, and frequency of church attendance were tested in this study. Finally, this study also  discussed the implications of its findings and made future research recommendations.