The Four E's

Miller's research suggests that there are four ways in which people integrate faith and work. We call these different manifestations “the Four E’s”: Ethics, Expression, Experience, and Enrichment.

  • Ethics accents doing the right the good, and the fitting. Its two sub-orientations are Self (personal values, ethical standards) and Community (business ethics, social responsibility).
  • Expression looks at verbal and non-verbal communication of faith at work. Its two sub-orientations are Verbal (discussion of faith, evangelization) and Non-verbal (symbols, attire, or actions).
  • Experience involves questions of vocation, calling, meaning, and purpose. Its two sub-orientations are Outcome (work as means, purpose/meaning) and Process/Activity (work as end, calling).
  • Enrichment focuses on practices such as healing, prayer, meditation, and transformation. Its two sub-orientations are Individual (devotional practices, individual prayer) and Group (small groups, worship communities).

Importantly, this is a descriptive observation, not a normative one; not everyone thinks they ought to integrate their faith and work. Additionally, The Integration Profile is ecumenical in nature, designed to support all worldviews (be they theistic or secular). As an assessment, The Integration Profile is designed to be used in a multi-faith work environment, whether in a publicly traded company, a privately owned small business, an educational institution, or even a nonprofit. Use in these contexts will allow management to understand, measure, and respond constructively to the increasing amount of religious diversity among employees and to address the growing impact of issues surrounding workplace faith/religion/spirituality.

Though this integration may be subconscious, the Integration Profile theory suggests that each person tends to have a natural bent toward one of these four expressions as their primary avenue of integrating faith and work. Crucially, each of the Four E's is equally valid - no one manifestation is better or worse than another.